Can animals lie to lie?
No, animals do not know how to lie. The fact is that animals do not have cognitive abilities needed for lies. That is, to lie, you need, firstly, to represent how the situation looks from the side for other animals and how it will turn into a perspective for the one who is lying. And secondly, it is necessary to own their behavior, restrain it and manage its reactions to incentives: for example, food or other animals. Animals do not know how to do.
However, what we call lies can sometimes require a smaller animal: let’s say if the animal knows the past experience that food will take away, – it will try to eat it who will select it, close, hide. Lie it? Rather, the reaction to the situation here and now, for example, in the direction of the views of those who are also interested in food.
Many monkeys are in touching and watching other members of their group, and in the conditions of captivity – by man, they understand where their views are directed, and as soon as a person or another monkey turns away – they immediately snatch food and run away.
It was somehow such an experiment: a man sits in front of a monkey with bait. Their shares the wall: on the one hand, transparent, and on the other – opaque. So the monkey will rather ride along the opaque wall, and then "cowar" pop up from behind the corner. But this is not a lies, it is a direct reaction to the developing conditions – "Come from there, where you can see less".
Animal pretense is also not a lie, but species-specific behavior programs. Animal, pretending to something that is not, does not argue, not lying, but acts automatically. For example, the bird drags the wing when trying to take the fox from the nest with chicks – she simply has no choice, she does not give a report in what pretending. Rodents, let’s say, can pretend to die: at the sight of the danger, they freeze, the eyes are closed and bored on the side. This is their way to avoid danger.
There is a common delusion of domestic owners: as if their pet understands when they scold him, and it is capable of experiencing wine for a rental pillow or puddle on the carpet and pretend to be guilty to not scold. It’s root incorrect. Animals tend to tie the cause and effect only here and now, they, conventionally speaking, no past and the future, they do not foresee the results of their actions, they live in the current moment.
There is a standard situation: the owner came home, his threshold meets the cat and puzzily looks into the eyes. The owner goes to the room and discovers that on a rude carpet, he begins to scold a cat, they say, that pretender, puts on pity and looks guilty. But she does not look guilty, she is just glad that the owner came, and does not understand why they scold her. As a result, the cat not only never ceases to write where it is not necessary, but also ceases to meet the owner. She has a connection in his head: "met the owner at the threshold – sparkled; it means to meet at the threshold – bad".