The former capital of the Roman, Byzantine, Latin and Ottoman Empires, modern Istanbul lost the capital status, but is the third largest city in Europe. Here 14 million people live here and another 13 million attend it annually.
Strait Bosphorus shares the city to the European and Asian parts. Each of them, retaining monuments of different times, has its own unique atmosphere. In addition to gorgeous mosques, significant interest are the sights of the Roman-Byzantine period.
Konstantinople (this name Istanbul was carried from 1453 to 1930) by the first half of the 5th century grew beyond the limits of those walls that were provided for by its founder by Konstantin Great. To protect against barbarians, the Emperor Feodosius II ordered to build a new fence; His length was then 5630 m. At the end of the XIX century, Feodosiev Walls began to demolish: they held back the continuing growth of the city, but later, with the support of UNESCO, part of the disassembled segments was restored.
Another witness of antiquity — 17-meter roman triumphal column in the Fatih area. It is erected in the middle of the V century and wears the name of the Byzantine emperor Markian.
Not far from the column is the aqueduct of Valentine, built in 368–375 years. By connecting two urban hills, it became an important stage in the development of the Constantinople plumbing system. Up until the middle of the XIX century, water was laid at the top of the lead pipes, and water was received to the city, and in our time an aqueduct is the popular tourist attraction of Istanbul.
The place of the ancient racetrack, the construction of which was started by the Romans in 203, now occupies the main square of Istanbul — Sultanahmet. It consists of two parts: the square between Ayia Sofia and the Blue Mosque and the Sprodrome Square directly. Columns and obelisks installed in the Byzantine period, as well as a German fountain donated by Kaiser Wilhelm II, still decorate this outstanding place.
The oldest Turkish architectural structure of the city is Anatolian Fortress (Anadolzhisara) in the Asian part. Among the many Byzantine temples, it is impossible not to call the Church of Christ the Savior in the monastery of the Choir and the Church of the Virgin Pamcarists: the largest collections of Mosaik are preserved here. One of the most famous Istanbul palaces — Topkappy. Located at the site of Bosphorus and Golden Horn to the Marmara Sea on the territory of more than 700,000 m 2, it is surrounded by a wall of 1,400 m.
Ayia Sophia — Saint Sophia Cathedral: The Symbol of the Golden Age of Byzantium. Over a thousand years, the Sofia Cathedral in Constantinople remained the largest temple in the Christian world. On the scale of the temple subsequently surpassed only the Cathedral of St. Peter in Rome.
And even if you have already traded at the Istanbul Bazaar, wake up at five in the morning from the cry of Muzziov and walked around narrow streets in pursuit of the next landmark — Discover this unique city from the air.